Hebrew: שלום

Distribution: Countries included but not limited to: Israel, Russia, and Poland.

Introduction: Hebrew is a Semitic language, sharing many features of the Arabic language. It is the official language of Israel and the language of the Jewish religion.

Cultural and Rhetorical Influences

  • Open-ended questions are generally used.

  • Plagiarism is not a serious issue;  also, papers are not as frequently assigned as in the United States.

  • Respect towards authority (teachers) varies based on the authoritative figure:

    • Teachers who properly relate to their students are highly regarded. They would communicate with students at the students' level, rather than trying to pull the student to their level.

    • Teachers who do not conduct the classroom in this manner are often disrespected, scrutinized, and ridiculed.

  • A person is taught to be genuine at all times, whether good or bad; respect is given to those that maintain a legitimate persona.

Language

  • Hebrew is a Semitic language in the Afro-Asiatic language family.

  • The alphabet consists of 22 consonants, 5 of which are written differently at the end of a word.

  • Western puncuation is used today to aid new learners of the language.

  • The basic Hebrew alphabet does not consist of any vowels; some consonants are modified with a dot to represent a vowel.

  • When spoken, Hebrew has 5 or 6 vowels without a distinction between long and short vowels.

  • The "th" is hard to learn for learners of English.

  • Verb tenses are very similar to English (past, present, future, conditional, imperatives, infinitives).

  • Syntax is more flexible: sentences tend to start with the verb followed by the subject; adjectives come after the noun.

  • Much more inflected language than English: verb endings, nouns, and pronouns vary in form depending on the preposition that proceeds them.

  • There are no indefinite articles.

Citations

Shoebottom, Paul. A Guide to Learning English. 1996. Website. 27 Apr. 2014.http://esl.fis.edu

Zusin, Sasha. "Israeli and Russian Learning Styles." E-mail interview. 05 Aug. 2014.