Spanish: ¡Hola!


Spanish: Countries include but not limited to: Spain, Mexico, Colombia, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic.

Catalan: Countries include but not limited to: Catalonia, Andorra, and Balearic Islands.

Introduction: Spanish and Catalan are Romance languages, part of the Indo-European family, closely related to Italian and Portuguese. Variations in Spanish are largely confined to pronunciation and vocabulary, while morphology and syntax are fairly standard everywhere. However, Catalan varies from one area to another, though the vaiations are largely within pronunciation and vocabulary.

Cultural and Rhetorical Influences

  • Communicate indirectly

    • "Yes" can mean maybe or no depending on circumstance.

    • Direct statements are usually imbedded within extra context.

  • Time is relative: human needs hold higher importance than deadlines.

  • Focus on the core group(s); group harmony.

  • View change as disruptive to harmony; adapt to problems.

  • Used to formal instruction from teacher, dependent on written materials.


  • Do not introduce the main point at the beginning.  Usually, main idea is introduced in the middle of the paper.

  • Vowels can be troublesome due to the similar characters but different pronunciation.

  • Comma use can be used with more flexibility which can cause overuse or improper use of the comma in English.

  • Spanish is a syllable-timed language (English is a stress-timed language) which can cause a lot of missspelled or misused words.

  • Verbs are inflected greater than in English; no one-to-one comparison.

  • Generally, SVO grammar with more flexibility to move/combine phrases.

  • Latin influence: many similar words to English (cognates).
  • Strong correspondence between the sound and spelling of a word.


Bascope, Judith. "Hispanic Culture in South America." Personal Interview. 15 Apr. 2014.

Coe, Norman. "Speakers of Spanish and Catalan." Learner English: A Teacher's Guide to Interference and Other Problems. Ed. Swan, Michael and Bernard Smith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 90-112. Print.

Shoebottom, Paul. A Guide to Learning English. 1996. Website. 27 Apr. 2014.